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*********A********* 





By Authority Of 

THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Legally Binding Document 



By the Authority Vested By Part 5 of the United States Code § 552(a) and 
Part 1 of the Code of Regulations § 51 the attached document has been duly 
INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE and shall be considered legally 
binding upon all citizens and residents of the United States of America. 
HEED THIS NOTICE : Criminal penalties may apply for noncompliance. 




Document Name: APSP 16: standard Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming 

Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 

CFR Section(s): 



Standards Body: Association of Pool and Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 

American National Standard for 



^ 



vi e ~ 



pjnerican NaUo naJs 



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* 



Suction Fittings for Use in 
Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, 
Spas, and Hot Tubs 



Approved February 17, 2011 




The Association of 
Pool & Spa Professionals" 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Suction Fittings for Use in 

Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 

Errata, 20110930 



Page 



15 



18 



A-2 



Error 



2.3.1.2 Entrapping Force Criterion for Q equation is shown incorrectly. T he correct equation is shown below. 



3.1.1: The words "conducted by a certific ation body" ha ve been deleted. Corrected paragraph is shown below. 



3.1.6: This paragraph was incorrectly divided into two paragraphs. Corrected paragraph is shown below. 



3.3.1, 3.4, 3.5.2, and 3.6.1: These equations incorrectly omitted "x K." Corrected paragraphs are shown below. 



3.7.1: The word "vacuum" has b een replaced by "differential pressure." 



Table 1: Incorrect numbers in rows 1 and 10 of this table have been fixed. Corrected rows are shown on back. 



7.1.1: The lines "Swim Jet" and "Life: 7 Years" were incorrectly shown on the same line. Corrected example is 
shown on back, 



Table II: In the second row under "Field Fabricated Outlets," the word "Yes" has been corrected to "Per manufac- 
turer." Corrected row is shown on back. 



2.3.1.2 Entrapping Force Criterion for Q 



Q = a, 



41. 



3.1.1 Certification. All testing and any certification of 
products to this Standard shall be in accordance with 
ISO/IEC 17025, except for field fabrication suction outlets 
which shall be certified in accordance with para. 2.3.1.7. 

3.1.6 Crack Detection. After each physical test, the unit 
shall be washed in a standard liquid detergent solution, 
rinsed with clear water, and dried prior to application of ink 
as specified in para. 3.1.6.1. After inking, the unit shall be 
visually inspected in accordance with para. 3.1.6.2. 
To hasten drying, the surface of the unit shall be permitted 
to be wiped with a clean chamois leather or a clean 
absorbent lint-free material for this test only. 

3.3.1 Test Method. Using the tup and a 2 in. (5i mm) 
diameter "Skin Pad" on the face of the tup, and tup speed 
described in para. 3.3, the six fittings shall be mounted in 
a horizontal plane and tested. The "Skin Pad" is a Y* in. 
(635 mm) thick Buna-N rubber pad of Shore A durometer 
60 ±5 hardness. The tup and pad shall be centered 

(a) on the fitting face 

(b) at two points midway between the center and 
edge 

(c) at two points between stiffeners, if any 

(d) at two points furthest from any support post. 

A load is applied at each of the above locations until 
300 Ibf x K ±10 Ibf ft 334 N x K ±44 N) is reached. 



3.4 Horizontal Load and Deformation Test 

Fittings to be tested shall be the six as previously tested in 
para. 3.3. This test is identical to the Vertical Test except 
that the load is 150 Ibf x K ±5 Ibf (667 N^:K±22 N), This 
applies only to fittings intended for and marked "Wall Only" 
or "Wall or Floor." 

3.5.2 Performance Requirement. Suction fittings shall not 
sustain loss of any material from the fitting, exclusive of 
plating or finish upon protrusion, or when a value of 600 
Ibf x K ±10 Ibf (2 669 N^K±44 N) is reached. Permanent 
deformation shall not be considered a failure. 

3.6.1 Test Method. The fitting shall be tested by the 
application of a 150 Ibf x K ±5 Ibf (667 N x K±22 N) test 
load applied 30° from the mounting plane by a loading 
face 2 in. 2 (645 mm 2 ) covered with a 2 in. x 2 in. ( 51 mm 
x 51 mm) "Skin Pad" on its face. The six fittings shall be 
tested using the point load machine described in para. 
3.3. Three fittings shall be tested with fasteners directly in 
line with the load to test the fastener's strength, and three 
shall be tested with the load midway between fasteners for 
general strength. 

3.7.1 Test Method 

(a) The fitting to be tested shall be mounted on a 
horizontal surface and covered with a 20 mil (0,5 mm) 
plastic material or other suitable material. The fitting outlet 
shall be connected to a vacuum or pressure (pressure 
will be required for K factors greater than 1.0 ) system 
and it shall be subjected to a 28.5 in. (724 mm) Hg x K 
differential pressure within 60 sec ±5 sec. The vacuum 
shall be sustained for 5 min ±10 sec. 



(c>2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 





Table 1: Applicable Body Block Element - 


■ Calculation of Removal Force 






Bather 


Min. Width 

Blocking Element 

to Shadow 

Tested Cover 


Blocking Element 

Length = Basis is 
1.2777 x Width Child Width 


Ratio of 

Element 

Width to 

Child Width 


Times Child 
Ratio Weight = 
Cubed 30 lb 


One-Half 
Weight 


Maximum 
Removal 
Effort No. 


99th percentile male 


18 
13.5 


23.0 9 
17,2 9 


2.00 
1.50 


8,00 240 
3.38 101 


120 
51 


120 

51 



7.1.1 Fittings that comply with ASME A112.19.8 shall be 
permanently marked as follows in a manner that is visible 
in the installed position and where the text is no smaller 
than 0.08 in. (2,03 mm) tall: 

(a) The following is an example of a typical marking: 

EXAMPLE: 

For Multiple Drain Use Only 

108 GPM 

Swim Jet 

Life: 7 Years 

Wall Only 

Quantum 1563-W 



Table II Fitting Type Requirements 


Type 


Field Fabricated 
Outlets 


Venturi 
Outlets 


Swim Jet 
Combination Outlets 


Submerged 
Suction Outlets 


Self-Contained 
Spa Fittings 


Certification 


Registered Design 
Professional 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Single or multiple 


Per manufacturer 


Per manufacturer 


Per manufacturer 


Per manufacturer 


Multiple only 



©2011 The Association of Poo! & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



American National Standard for 

Suction Fittings for Use in 

Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 



SECRETARIAT: 

Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 
2111 Eisenhower Avenue 
Alexandria, VA 22314 
703 838-0083 
APSP.org 



Approved February 17, 2011 
American National Standards Institute 



American National Standard 

Approval of an American National Standard requires verification by ANSI that the requirements for due process, consensus, 
and other criteria for approval have been met by the standard developer. Consensus is established when, in the judgment of 
the ANSI Board of Standards Review, substantial agreement has been reached by directly and materially affected interests. 
Substantial agreement means much more than a simple majority, but not necessarily unanimity. 

Consensus requires that all views and objections be considered and that a concerted effort be made toward their resolution. 
The use of American National Standards is completely voluntary; their existence does not in any respect preclude anyone, 
whether he has approved this standard or not, from manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products, processes, or 
procedures not conforming to the standards. 

The American National Standards Institute does not develop standards and will in no circumstances give an interpretation 
of any American National Standard. Moreover, no person shall have the right or authority to issue an interpretation of an 
American National Standard in the name of the American National Standards Institute. Requests for interpretations should 
be addressed to the secretariat or sponsor whose name appears on the title page of this standard. 

NOTICE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. The procedures of the American National 
Standards Institute require that action be taken periodically to reaffirm, revise, or withdraw this standard. 



Important Notice about this Document 

This voluntary standard has been developed under the published procedures of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 
The ANSI process brings together volunteers representing varied viewpoints and interests to achieve consensus. 

APSP does not write the standards. Rather, APSP facilitates a forum for its members, and others interested in pool and spa design and 
safety, to develop standards through the consensus procedures of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). While the APSP 
administers the process and establishes rules to promote fairness in the development of consensus, it does not independently test, 
evaluate, or verify the accuracy of any information or the soundness of any judgments contained in its codes and standards. 

In issuing and making this document available, the APSP is not undertaking to render professional or other services for or on behalf of any 
person or entity, Nor is the APSP undertaking to perform any duty owed by any person or entity to someone else. The APSP disclaims liability 
for any persona! injury, property, or other damages of any nature whatsoever, whether special, indirect, consequential, or compensatory, 
directly or indirectly resulting from the publication of, use of, or reliance on this document 

The APSP has no power, nor does it undertake, to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this document. The APSP does not 
list, certify, test, or inspect products, designs, or installations for compliance with this document. Any certification or other statement of 
compliance with the requirements of this document shall not be attributable to the APSP. Any certification of products stating compliance 
with requirements of this document is the sole responsibility of the certifier or maker of the statement The APSP, its members, and those 
participating in its activities do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions given herein, for any 
restrictions imposed on materials, or for the accuracy and completeness of the text. 

Anyone using this document should rely on his or her own independent judgment or, as appropriate, seek the advice of a competent 
professional in determining the exercise of reasonable care in any given circumstance. It is assumed and intended that pool users will 
exercise appropriate personal judgment and responsibility and that public pool owners and operators will create and enforce rules of 
behavior and warnings appropriate for their facility. 



Copyright Notice 

Copyright ©2011 by The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22314-4695. Printed in the United States 

of America. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transcribed or transmitted, in any form or by any 

means or method, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without advance written permission from the publisher: The Association of 

Pool & Spa Professionals, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22314-4695. 

"APSP," 'The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals," and the APSP logo are trademarks of The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals. 

Cover Photo: Courtesy of Michelle Vlach Photography, www.michellevlach.com 

©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals II 



Foreword 

This Foreword is not part of the American National Standard ANSI/APSP-16 2011. It is included for information only. 

The ANSI/APSP-16 2011, Standard for Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs, was approved by 
ANSI February 17, 2011, as a new standard. 

The objective of this voluntary standard is to provide recommended minimum guidelines for testing and marking requirements for suction 
fittings that are designed for use on totally submerged suction outlets in swimming pools, wading pools, spas, and hot tubs, as well as 
other aquatic facilities. It is intended to meet the needs for incorporation into national or regional building codes, and also for adoption 
by federal, state, and/or local governments, and/or as a local code or ordinance. It is understood that for the sake of applicability and 
enforceability, the style and format of the standard may need adjustment to meet code or ordinance style of the jurisdiction adopting this 
document. 

The APSP does not certify, test or endorse any product. 

The recommendations and testing practices in this standard are based upon sound engineering principles, research, and field experience 
that, when applied properly, contribute to the delivery and installation of a safe product. 

The words "safe" and "safety" are not absolutes. While the goals of this standard are to design and construct a safe, enjoyable product, 
it is recognized that risk factors cannot, as a practical matter, be reduced to zero in any human activity. This standard does not replace 
the need for good judgment and personal responsibility. In permitting use of the pool or spa by others, owners must consider the skill, 
attitude, training, and experience of the expected user. 

As with any product, the specific recommendations for installation and use provided by the manufacturer should be carefully observed. 

This standard was prepared by the APSP-16 Suction Fittings Standard Writing Committee of the Association of Pool and Spa 
Professionals (APSP) in accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Essential Requirements: Due process 
requirements for American National Standards. 

Consensus approval was achieved by a ballot of the balanced APSP Standards Consensus Committee below and through an ANSI Public 
Review process. The ANSI Public Review provided an opportunity for additional input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, safety 
experts, state code and health officials, and the public at large. 

Suggestions for improvement of this standard should be sent to the Association of Pool and Spa Professionals, 2111 Eisenhower Avenue, 
Alexandria, VA 22314. 



jjj ©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Organizations Represented 

Consensus approval in accordance with ANSI procedures was 
achieved by ballot of the following APSP Standards Consensus 
Committee. Inclusion in this list does not necessarily imply that 
the organization concurred with the submittal of the proposed 
standard to ANSI. 

Producers 

All American Custom Pools & Spas, Inc. . . John Romano 

Custom Pools, Inc Scott Heusser 

Gary Pools, Inc Leif Zars 

Hayward Industries , John O'Hare 

HornerXpress South Florida Bill Kent 

Master Spas Inc. Nathan Coelho 

Rosebrook Carefree Pools, Inc John Bently 

Royal Fiberglass Pools Inc Tony Hebert 

S.R. Smith, LLC Bill Svendsen 

Van Kirk & Sons, Inc Don Cesarone 

General Interest 

American Red Cross Connie Harvey 

Con-Sen/ Associates, Inc Wally James 

Conroe Independent School District, TX . . . Louis Sam Fruia 
Higgins Environmental Solutions 

(NEHA) Florence Higgins 

Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Michael Beatty 

Gene Wells Consulting Gene Wells 

Don Witte, Consultant Don Witte 

World Waterpark Association Rick Root 

Wyndham Worldwide Corporation 

(American Hotel & Lodging Association). . . Tony Mendez 

YMCA of the USA Albert Tursi 

Government/ User 

City of Southfield, Ml Wayne Jewell 

City of Mount Dora, FL Tom Allen 

Fairfax County, VA Marc Mordue 

Indiana Building Safety and Codes Don LeBrun 

Madison County Inspection Dept., Wl Matthew Danner 

N.J. Dept. of Community Affairs 

Division of Codes and Standards Thomas Pitcherello 

Oregon Public Health Division Stephen Keifer 

Wisconsin Dept. of Commerce 

Safety and Buildings Division Lynita Docken 

Texas Dept. of State Health Services Kathleen Moore 

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Troy Whitfield* 

Washington State Dept. of Health Gary Fraser 

*non-voting 



In accordance with American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 
procedures, this document will be reviewed periodically. The 
Association of Pool & Spa Professionals welcomes your comments 
and suggestions, and continues to review all APSP standards, which 
include: 

ANSI/APSP-1 2003 Standard for Public Swimming Pools 
ANSI/APSP-2 1999 Standard for Public Spas 
ANSI/APSP-3 1999 Standard for Permanently Installed 
Residential Spas 

ANSI/APSP4 1999 Standard for Aboveground/Onground 

Residential Swimming Pools 
ANSI/APSP-5 2011 Standard for Residential Inground 

Swimming Pools 

ANSI/APSP-6 1999 Standard for Residential Portable Spas 
ANSi/APSP-7 2006 Standard for Suction Entrapment Avoidance in 

Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Catch Basins 
ANSI/APSP-8 1996 Model Barrier Code for Residential Swimming 

Pools, Spas and Hot Tubs 

ANSI/APSP-9 2005 Standard for Aquatic Recreation Facilities 
ANSI/APSP-11 2009 Standard for Water Quality in Public Pools 

and Spas 
ANSI/APSP-14 2011 Standard for Portable Electric Spa 

Energy Efficiency 
APSP-15 Standard for Pool and Spa Energy Efficiency (Draft) 
ANSI/APSP -16 2011 Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, 

Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 
APSP-17 Manufactured Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) for 

Residential and Commercial Swimming Pool, Spa, Hot Tub, and 

Wading Pool Suction Systems (Draft) 
APSP 2005 Workmanship Standards for Swimming Pools and Spas 

APSP-16 Writing Committee 

Gary Pools, Inc Leif Zars, Chair 

NSF International Sal Aridi, Vice Chair 

Aquatic Development Group Jim Dunn 

Balboa Water Group, Inc Paul Rosenau 

Hayward Pool Products Robert Rung 

IAPMO Maribel Campos 

Paramount Pool and Spa Systems Dominic Conn 

Pentair Water Pool and Spa Steve Barnes 

Stingl Products LLC David Stingl 

Texas Dept. of State Health Services Kathleen 0. Moore 

Underwriters Laboratories Inc Gary Siggins 

U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission Troy Whitfield* 

Vac-Alert Industries, LLC George Pellington 

Walt Disney Parks and Resorts Andrea M. Crabb 

Water Technology, Inc Brian W. Freber 

Waterway Plastics Inc Ray Mirzaei 

* non-voting 

APSP Staff 

Bernice Crenshaw, Director, Standards and Technical Information 
Carvin DiGiovanni, Senior Director, Technical and Standards 



©2011 The Association of Pooi & Spa Professionals 



IV 



ANSi/APSP-16 2011 



Contents 

Sections page 

1 General , i 

2 Fitting Design, Assembly, and Material Requirements , 3 

3 Physical Testing 5 

4 Hair Entrapment 8 

5 Body Entrapment , 13 

6 Finger and Limb Entrapment 15 

7 Packaging and Installation Instructions , 18 

Figures 

1 Finger Probe "Edge" 2 

2 Field Built Sump .5 

3 Test Tank Pull Mechanism , 9 

4 Test Tank Side View 9 

5 Test Tank Top View , 9 

6 Test Tank Mounting Plate 10 

7 Test Tank Baffles 10 

8 Anticlastic Mounting Surface (Typical) 11 

9 Hair Test Configuration for Self-Contained Spa Fittings 12 

10 Hair Test Diagrams 13 

11 Body Block Element 14 

12 Body Block Element Dimensions 14 

13 Finger Probe-Finger and Limb Entrapment Test 16 

14 Finger Probe , 16 

15 Finger Probe Dimensions 17 

16 Finger Probe Knuckle Dimensions 17 

Tables 

1 Applicable Body Block Element 

Calculation of Removal Force 15 

Mandatory Appendices 

I Torso Specimen With Rectangle Superimposed A-l 

II FittingType Requirements. , A-2 

Non-mandatory Appendix 

A Suction Fitting Test Form-Hair Entrapment A-3 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Suction Fittings For Use In Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, And Hot Tubs 



1 General 

1.1 Scope 

1.1.1 General Requirements. This Standard establishes 
materials, testing, and marking requirements for suction 
fittings that are designed to be totally submerged for use 
in swimming pools, wading pools, spas, and hot tubs, as 
well as other aquatic facilities. 

1.1.2 Definition. Suction fittings shall be defined as all 
components, including the sump and/or body, cover/ 
grate, and hardware. 

1.1.3 Compliance. Demonstration of compliance for this 
Standard is merely an indication that the product meets 
performance requirements and specifications contained in 
this Standard. 

1.1.4 Revisions. The provisions of this Standard shall not 
be construed to prevent the use of any alternate material 
or method of construction provided any such alternate 
meets the full intent of the standard. 

1.1.5 Exclusions 

1.1.5.1 Skimmers shall be excluded from evaluation to 
this Standard. 

1.1.5.2 Vacuum connection covers shall be excluded 
from evaluation to this Standard. 

1.1.6 Types of Suction Fittings 

1.1.6.1 General. A manufacturer or designer of any 
suction outlet cover/grate shall indicate under which 
Type the cover/grate is listed. 

1.1.6.2 Field Fabricated Outlets. All non-manufactured 
suction outlets constructed in the field with individual 
components shall be considered as "Field Fabricated 
Outlets." 

1.1.6.3 Venturi Outlets. All venturi activated indirect- 
suction outlets or venturi activated debris collection 
systems shall be considered as "Venturi Outlets." 

1.1.6.4 Swim Jet Combination Fittings. All swim jet 
combination fittings that combine suction and discharge 
into one housing, creating a high velocity, high volume 
stream of water to swim, jog, or walk against, as well as 
massage, shall be considered "Swim Jet Combination 
Fittings." 

1.1.6.5 Submerged Suction Outlets. All other suction 
outlets for use in swimming pools, wading pools, spas, 
and hot tubs, as well as all other aquatic facilities, shall 
be considered as "Submerged Suction Outlets." 



1.1.6.6 Self-Contained Spa Fittings. Suction outlet 
fittings used exclusively in self-contained factory 
manufactured spas shall be considered "Self-Contained 
Spa Fittings." 

1.1.7 Single or Multiple Usage 

1.1.7.1 Cover/grates that pass the body entrapment 
portion of this Standard as well as meeting all other 
requirements in this Standard shall be permanently 
marked "For Single or Multiple Outlet Use," "For Single 
Outlet Use," or "For Multiple Outlet Use Only" at the 
manufacturer's option. 

1.1.7.2 Cover/grates that fail the body entrapment 
portion of this Standard or any other requirements of 
this Standard may not be certified under this Standard. 

1.2 Related Standards 

Since the scope of this Standard is directly related to 
suction fittings, it is important to mention that the fittings 
themselves represent only one portion of the suction 
entrapment scenario. Several other standards, including but 
not limited to, ANSI/APSP-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -8 and -9, as 
well as ASME A112. 19.17, and ASTM F 2387-04, as outlined 
in para. 1.4, should be consulted to provide coverage for the 
various other aspects of this potential hazard in swimming 
pools, wading pools, spas, and hot tubs. 

1.3 Units of Measurement 

When values are stated in U.S. Customary units and in 
the International System of Units (SI), the values stated 
in U.S. Customary units shall be considered as the 
standard. 

1.4 References 

The following standards are referenced in this document. 
Unless otherwise specified, the latest edition shall 
apply. 

ANSI/APSP-1, Standard for Public Swimming Pools 

ANSI/APSP-2, Standard for Public Spas 

ANSI/APSP-3, Standard for Permanently Installed 
Residential Spas 

ANSI/APSP-4, Standard for Aboveground/Onground 
Residential Swimming Pools 

ANSI/APSP-5, Standard for Residential Inground 
Swimming Pools 

ANSI/APSP-6, Standard for Residential Portable Spas 

ANSI/APSP-8, Model Barrier Code for Residential 
Swimming Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



ANSI/APSP-9, Aquatic Recreation Facilities 
Publisher: Association of Pool & Spa Professionals, 
APSP, (formerly National Spa and Pool Institute, NSPI), 
2111 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria VA 22314 

ASME A112.19.17, Manufactured Safety Vacuum 
Release Systems (SVRS) for Residential and 
Commercial Swimming Pool, Spa, Hot Tub, and 
Wading Pool Suction Systems 

Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical 
Engineers, ASME, Three Park Avenue, New York, NY 
10016-5990; Order Department: 22 Law Drive, 
P.O. Box 2300, Fairfield NJ 07007-2300 

ANSI/ASTM D 638, Standard Test Method for Tensile 
Properties of Plastics 

ASTM D 256, Standard Test Methods for Determining 
the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics 

ASTM D 2444, Standard Practice for Impact Resistance 
of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings by Means of a Tup 
(Falling Weight) 

ASTM D 2466-02, Standard Specification for Polyvinyl 
Chloride, PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 

ASTM F 1498-2000, Standard Specification for Taper 
Pipe Threads 60° for Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings 

ASTM F 2387-04, Standard Provisional Specification for 
Manufactured Safety Vacuum Release Systems (SVRS) 
for Swimming Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 

ASTM G 154, Standard Practices for Operating 
Fluorescent Light Apparatus for UV Exposure of 
Nonmetallic Materials 

Publisher: ASTM International (ASTM), 
100 Barr Harbor Drive, P.O. Box C700, 
West Conshohocken PA 19428-2959 

IAPMO PS 33-2007a Flexible PVC Hose for Pools, Hot 
Tubs, Spas and Jetted Bathtubs 

Publisher: IAPMO Research and Testing, 

5001 E. Philadelphia St., Ontario CA 91761 USA 

1.5 Definitions 

anticlastic: Having opposite curvatures, as the surface 
of a saddle. 

anti-vortex: The term anti-vortex has been misused 
within the industry and largely misunderstood as 
somehow relating to entrapment prevention. Anti-vortex 
outlet covers were designed to prevent an air-entraining 
vortex from forming. The term anti-vortex should not be 
construed to impart any protection and should no longer 
be referenced in this regard. 



applicable body blocking element: A body blocking 
element that has a mandatory length to width ratio of 
1.2777, a maximum size of 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 
584 mm), and a minimum size of 9 in. x 11.5 in. 
(229 mm x 292 mm). Its actual size for test purposes is 
the smallest size that will completely shadow the 
suction cover/grate being tested. 

body-blocking element: A flat, rectangular shape with 
radiused corners of approved foam and backing of the 
torso specimen measuring 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 
584 mm) with 4 in. (102 mm) corner radii. 

complete system: Comprising a pump, suction outlet, 
(and possibly inlet), and connecting piping as specified 
by manufacturer. No other operating components 
or valves may be included. Safety devices, vents, 
suction vacuum release systems, etc., shall be used 
only as specified by the manufacturer. Non-operating 
components such as drains are permitted. 

cover: A fitting or device generally placed between 
the suction piping and the bather. Not used in this 
document to avoid confusion. See also cover/grate. 

cover/ grate: Covering fitting or assembly that separates 
the bather from the suction sump or piping, sometimes 
referred to as a "grate" or a "cover." 

dual outlets: Two suction outlets connected to an 
individual suction system but separated by a minimum 
of 3 feet (914 mm). 

edge: The line of intersection between any two surfaces 
with an intersecting angle greaterthan 180°, measured 
face to face (see Figure 1), and having a transitional 
radius between the two faces of less than 0.75 in. 

(19 mm). 

field fabricated: When applied to suction outlet 
hardware, shall indicate the use or design of 
conventional building materials or products, or 
of custom fabrication (i.e., weldments) to create 
specialized suction outlets. 

Figure 1: Finger Probe "Edge" 




NOTE 

A transition is considered an "edge" when the 
angle is greater than 180 deg, and the transition 
radius is less than 0.75 in 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



grate: A fitting, assembly, or panel with multiple 
openings in its surface. Not used in this Standard to 
avoid confusion. See also cover/grate. 

indirect-suction: A localized area of low pressure for the 
transfer of water from a swimming pool, wading pool, 
spa, or hot tub by any means not to include suction 
created by the inlet side of a pump or turbine (e.g., 
gravity flow systems where the low pressure under a 
cover/ grate is produced by a difference in water levels). 

individual suction system: A single suction system 
piping arrangement that connects one or more suction 
outlets to one or more pumps or gravity flow reservoirs. 

manufactured: When applied to fittings, fitting 
assemblies, cover/grates, or related devices, indicates 
the routine commercial production of such items for 
the purpose of providing suction outlet hardware for 
swimming pools, wading pools, spas, and hot tubs. 

multiple drain use only: Indicating that the referenced 
suction outlet may not be used as the single sole 
source for water to a pump suction system. 

multiple outlets: When applied to suction outlets, shall 
mean two or more suction outlets connected to an 
individual suction system. 

operating component: Any component or part that can 
have its functionality changed. 

pinch point: Any location inside the assembled suction 
fitting where an aperture enlarges upstream and 
downstream. 

Q: Flow rate in cubic feet per second (ft 3 /sec). 

registered design professional: An individual who is 
registered or licensed to practice their respective design 
profession as defined by the statutory requirements 
of the professional registration laws of the state or 
jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. 

self-contained factory manufactured spa: A spa/ 
hydrotherapy unit of irregular or geometric design in 
which all control, water heating and water circulation 
equipment is an integral part of the product (appliance). 
Self-contained factory manufactured spas are 
assemblies that are complete with submerged suction 
outlets, fittings and connecting hoses assembled 
into the body or the shell of the spa at the time of 
manufacture. 

self-contained spa fittings: A fitting, fitting assembly, 
cover/ grate, and related components that provide a 
localized low pressure area for the transfer of water from 
a Self-Contained, Factory Manufactured Spa. 

single drain use: Indicating that the referenced suction 
outlet may be used as the single sole source for water 
to a pump suction system. 



single or multiple drain use: Indicating that the 
referenced suction outlet may be used as either the 
single sole source for water to a pump suction system, 
or may be used in conjunction with additional suction 
outlets to a pump suction system. 

skin pad: Skin-like cushion consisting of V* in. (6.35 mm) 
thick Buna-N rubber, Shore A durometer 60 ±5. 

suction outlet: A fitting, fitting assembly, cover/grate, 
and related components that provide a localized low- 
pressure area for the transfer of water from a swimming 
pool, wading pool, spa, or hot tub. 

swim jet combination fitting: A fitting that combines 
suction and discharge in one housing, creating a high 
velocity, high volume stream of water to swim, jog, or 
walk, as well as massage. 

torso specimen: An 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 584 mm) 
rectangular form with 4 in. (102 mm) radiused corners 
representing the flat portion of the 99th percentile adult 
male body (Mandatory Appendix I). 

venturi outlets: Venturi activated indirect-suction cover/ 
grates or venturi activated debris collection systems. 

2 Fitting Design, Assembly, and Material 
Requirements 

2.1 General Requirements 

2.1.1 When fasteners are used, the suction fitting shall 
be designed so that tools are required for disassembly. 
Standard slotted screws shall not be permitted for affixing 
cover/grates to the suction fitting body. Fasteners shall 
have a corrosion resistance to the intended environment 
equivalent to grade 316 stainless steel as a minimum. 

2.1.1.1 Threaded fasteners shall be sized to provide a 
minimum of three threads of engagement. 

2.1.1.2 Sumps intended to receive fasteners shall be 
designed for fifteen secure insertion, tightening, and 
removal cycles of the fasteners without stripping. The 
design shall inhibit inadvertent cross-threading. 

2.1.1.3 Sumps intended for use with self-tapping screws 
(those not having threaded inserts) shall be designed 
and constructed to accommodate redrilling for insertion 
of a threaded insert in a stripped hole to accept the 
original size fastener. 

2.1.1.4 If threaded inserts are used, they shall be 
chosen to preclude any corrosive or chemical reaction 
with screws provided for the sump by the manufacturer. 

2.1.1.5 Both self-tapping screws and machine screws 
with associated threaded inserts shall be permitted. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



2.1.1.6 The strength of the fastening system shall 
conform to the requirements of this Standard. 

2.1.2 Suction fitting assemblies that connect directly to 
the circulation piping shall attach by a PVC end connection 
in accordance with ASTM D 2466, or by a threaded end 
connection in accordance with ASTM F 1498. 

2.1.3 There shall be no accessible sharp edges to 
constitute a hazard with fully assembled suction fittings. 

2.1.4 Suction fittings shall not protrude from the installed 
surface more than 2 in. (51 mm). 

2.2 Fitting Exposure 

When polymeric material is used for the manufacture of 
suction fitting components they shall be tested as described 
in para. 3.2 and be rated for service life in accordance with 
para. 7.1.1(b)(5). 

2.3 Specific Design Requirements 

2.3.1 Field Fabricated Outlets. Field fabricated outlets are 
intended as but are not limited to a single suction outlet 
and are limited to 1.5 ft/sec (0A6 m/$) of flow through the 
open area of the cover/grate unless rated at a lower flow 
rate by the Registered Design Professional. They shall be 
of such a size that the 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 534 mm) 
body-blocking element will not cause a differential pressure 
that could cause body entrapment as defined below. They 
are further governed by the stipulations of Mandatory 
Appendix II. 

2.3.1.1 Suction Outlet Cover/Grates. Suction outlet 
cover/ grates that cannot be completely covered by 
the 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 584 mm) body-blocking 
element may be rated by the following formulas, which 
shall yield the maximum allowable flow, Q, through the 
cover/grate. 

All calculations involve the open area of the cover/ grate 
only. 

2.3.1.2 Entrapping Force Criterion for Q 



Q = a 



4iT 



where 

a B = largest area of the openings in ft 2 , that can 
be blocked by the torso specimen in the most 
demanding position 

a R =area of the openings in ft 2 that remain unblocked 

a T = total area of the openings in ft 2 in the cover/grate 



C = flow coefficient based on the design of the openings 
in the cover/grate. It shall be taken at 2.1 unless 
otherwise demonstrated by calculation or test. 

F = allowable lifting load that can be exerted by a 
conscious entrapped person. It is taken at 120 Ibf 
(534 N), about half the weight of the 99th percentile 
male whose weight is already entirely balanced by 
buoyancy. 

Q = limiting flow rate in ft 3 /sec based on the allowable 
entrapping force 

p = mass density of water 

= 62.4 lb/ft 3 = 1.940 slugs/ft 3 
32.16 ft/sec 2 

2.3.1.3 Maximum Rating, ft 3 /sec. The maximum rating 
of the cover/grate in cubic feet per second is Q. 

2.3.1.4 Maximum Rating, gal/min. The maximum rating 
of the cover/grate in gallons per minute is Q multiplied 
by 7.48 gal/ft 3 multiplied by 60 sec/min. 

2.3.1.5 Alternate Test. As an alternate to para. 
2.3.1.2, the Body Entrapment Test of section 5 may be 
performed. 

2.3.1.6 Sump. Field fabricated outlets shall have a sump 
below or behind the cover/grate of the design specified 
by the Registered Design Professional to control flow 
through the open area of the cover/ grate. 

2.3.1.7 Design. The design of field fabricated outlets 
shall be further specified by a Registered Design 
Professional to fully address the considerations of 
cover/grate loadings, durability, hair, finger and limb 
entrapment issues, cover/grate secondary layer of 
protection, related sump design, and features particular 
to the site. 

2.3.2 Venturi Outlets. Venturi outlets are outlets that are 
venturi activated through indirect suction through a single 
cover/grate generally designed for debris collection. Those 
that do not connect directly to the circulation piping shall 
have the manufacturer's recommended sump below or 
behind the outlet cover/ grate. They are further governed by 
the stipulations of Mandatory Appendix II. 

2.3.3 Swim Jet Combination Fittings. Swim jet combination 
fittings are fittings that combine suction and discharge into 
one housing and may be used as single inlets/outlets. 
They shall connect directly to the circulation piping by a PVC 
end connection in accordance with ASTM D 2466, or by a 
threaded end connection in accordance with ASTM F 1498. 
They are further governed by the stipulations of Mandatory 
Appendix II. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 2: Field Built Sump 

1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1 m 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ittt 



Dmin. A 





Dmin 




mmiii 



nxm 



D 
1.5 Dmin. I min - 



NOTES: 

(a) D = inside diameter of pipe. 

(b) All dimensions shown are minimums. 

(c) A broken line (- - -) indicates suggested surnp configuration. 



2.3.4 Submerged Suction Outlets. Submerged suction 
outlets are manufactured cover/ grate assemblies that may 
or may not connect directly to the circulation piping. Those 
that do not connect directly to the circulation piping shall 
have either the manufacturer's recommended sump below 
or behind the outlet cover/grate, or a field built sump of 
the design specified by the manufacturer to control flow 
through the open area of the cover/grate. Alternatively, a 
sump built in accordance with Figure 2 shall be permitted. 
They are further governed by the stipulations of Mandatory 
Appendix II 

2.3.5 Self-Contained Spa Fittings. Self-contained spa 
fittings shall be used exclusively in Self-Contained Factory 
Manufactured Spas and at least two fittings shall be 
used for each pump. The installation shall conform to the 
applicable requirements of this standard. 

2.3.5.1 Installation. Self-contained spa fittings shall be 
installed into the body or shell of the spa at the time 
of spa manufacture. When used, at least two Self- 
Contained Spa Fittings shall be piped so that water is 
drawn through them simultaneously through a common 
line to the related pump. The use of valves or fittings 
capable of isolating one Self-Contained Spa Fitting 
from any other on the common line to the related pump 
shall be prohibited. This type fitting shall be connected 
to the tee leading to the pump utilizing only the fitting 
manufacturer's specified size(s) of flexible PVC hose. 
The flexible PVC hose specified shall conform to 
IAPMO PS 33. 



2.3.5.1.1 Maximum Hose Length. The maximum 
length of hose between any self-contained spa fitting 
and the tee leading to the pump, shall not exceed 

13 ft (396,2 cm). 

3 Physical Testing 

3.1 General 

3.1.1 Certification. All testing and any certification of 
products to this Standard shall be in accordance with 
ISO/IEC 17025, conducted by a certification body, except 
for field fabrication suction outlets which shall be certified 
in accordance with para. 2.3.1.7. 

3.1.2 Conditions for Tests and Evaluation. All tests shall be 
conducted at laboratory room temperature of 73.4 °F 

±3 °F(23 X±2 °C) unless specified otherwise herein. 

3.1.3 Test Procedure. For the tests covered in Section 3, a 
minimum of six suction fittings shall be tested in each test 
condition, unless otherwise stated. If the parts are made 
in different mold cavities, representative samples shall be 
taken from different mold cavities for a total of six. Testing 
shall be performed immediately after conditioning, as 
described in para. 3.1.5. 

3.1.4 Test Fixture. The fitting(s) shall be installed in a 
rigid fixture that is capable of supporting the fitting(s) in a 
manner similar to the actual installation. 

3.1.5 Conditioning. All specimens shall be submerged in 
water at a temperature of 73.4 °F ±3 °F (23 °C ±2 °C) for 
at least 2 hr before testing. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



3.1.6 Crack Detection. After each physical test, the unit 
shall be washed in a standard liquid detergent solution, 
rinsed with Clearwater, and dried prior to application of ink 
as specified in para. 3.1.6.1. After inking, the unit shall be 
visually inspected in accordance with para. 

3.1.6.2. To hasten drying, the surface of the unit shall 
be permitted to be wiped with a clean chamois leather 
or a clean absorbent lint-free material for this test only. 

NOTE: Standard liquid detergent shall consist of 
(by volume): 

(a) Monsanto TKPP, 8.00% 

(b)SteroxNJ, 7.00% 

(c) Stepan SXS, 8.00% 

(d) Butyl Cellosolve, 1.5% 

(e) Water, 75.5% 

3.1.6.1 Inking Procedure. The entire finished surface 
of the fitting shall be rubbed with a sponge and a 50% 
solution of tap water and water-soluble contrasting 
color ink after the unit has been washed and dried as 
described in para. 3.1.6. The ink shall be rinsed from 
the surface and then dried before inspection. 

3.1.6.2 Method of Inspection of the Fitting Surface. 

The surface of the fitting shall be inspected with the 
unaided eye for defects from a distance of between 1 ft 
and 2 ft (305 mm and 610 mm). The light source shall be 
equivalent to an illumination intensity near the surface 
to be inspected of 150 fc ±50 fc (1615 lx ±540 ix). 

3.1.7 Performance Requirement. The fitting shall be free 
from cracks. The presence of seams, flow lines, and knit 
lines within suction fittings shall be permitted and shall not 
be considered as cracks. No failures shall occur. 

3.2 Ultraviolet Light Exposure Test 

Either Test Method 1 or Test Method 2 may be utilized. Test 
Method 1 is suited for products small enough to fit into 
the UV test chamber, while Test Method 2 is suitable for all 
products. 

If Test Method 1 is used, then the ultraviolet test as 
well as all the structural tests, are performed on the 
complete (as sold) samples. 

If Test Method 2 is used, then the ultraviolet test is 
performed on "dogbone" samples molded per ASTM 
D 638 from the same resin as the final production 
samples. The tensile strength and Izod impact tests are 
performed on two sets of the "dogbone" samples, set 
A is non-exposed and set B is exposed to the ultraviolet 
test. In addition, all the applicable structural tests 
(paras. 3.3 through 3.8) are also performed on the 
complete (as sold) virgin samples. The performance 



requirements for those tests, however, will be adjusted 
per para. 3.2.2.3 of this Standard. 

EXCEPTION: Manufactured sumps and other fitting 
components that are not exposed to natural UV 
radiation when fully assembled and installed, according 
to the manufacturer's instruction, shall not be required 
to be included in the Ultraviolet Light Exposure Test. 

3.2.1 Test Method 1. Twelve new fitting specimens shall be 
exposed to ultraviolet light and water spray in accordance 
with either: 

(a) 720 hr of twin enclosed carbon-arc 
(ASTMG 153, Table XI. 1 Cycle 1), 

(b) 1,000 hr of xenon-arc 

(ASTM G 155, Table X3.1 Cycle 1), or 

(c) 750 hr of fluorescent 

(ASTMG 154, Table X2.1 Cycle 1). 

3.2.1.1 Test Method 1. Specimens shall be mounted 
inside the test apparatus, with exposed surfaces of the 
specimens facing the UV lamps and positioned so they 
receive exposure approximating a fully assembled and 
installed cover/ grate fitting. After the exposure test, the 
specimens shall be removed from the test apparatus 
and rejected if signs of deterioration such as cracking or 
crazing appear. 

Discoloration shall not be cause for rejection. They shall 
then be retained under conditions of ambient room 
temperature and atmospheric pressure for not less than 
16 hr and not more than 96 hr before being subjected 
to the following tests: 

(a) Deflection Tests 

(b) Point Load to Protrusion Test 

(c) Shear Load Test 

(d) Vacuum and Point Impact Test 

(e) Pull Load Test 

The intensification factor K shall be 1.0 for UV Test 
Method 1. 

The exposed specimen shall be permitted to be 
transported from one laboratory to another, provided 
time requirements are met 

3.2.1.2 Performance Requirement. All the specimens 
that were subject to UV Test Method 1 shall comply with 
all performance requirements of the structural integrity 
tests in paras. 3.3 through 3.8. 

3.2.2 Test Method 2. Samples of the fitting polymeric 
materials shall be exposed to ultraviolet light in 
accordance with the options specified in para. 3.2.1(a), 
(b), or (c), Test Method 1, and then to the tests 
specified in paras. 3.2.2.1 and 3,2.2.2. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



3.2.2.1 Tensile Strength. Samples of virgin material 
(A) and UV-exposed material (B) shall be evaluated 
for tensile strength as described in the Standard Test 
Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, ANSI/ASTM D 
638 (ISO 527-2) using Type 1 specimens of 0.125 in. 
±0.02 in. (3.2 mm ±0.4 mm) thickness and testing speed 
of 0.2 in./min (5.1 mm/min) ±25%. The tensile strength 
is to be that at the yield point if the material yields, 
otherwise at break. 

3.2.2.2 Izod Impact. Samples of virgin material (A) and 
UV-exposed material (B) shall be evaluated for impact 
strength as described in Method A of the Standard Test 
Methods for Impact Resistance of Plastics and Electrical 
Insulating Materials, ASTM D 256 or ISO 180, using 
0.125 in. (3.2 mm) thick specimen. 

3.2.2.3 Performance Requirement. Samples of the 
material shall retain at least 70% of the unconditioned 
(virgin) value when the tests indicated in paras. 3.2.2.1 
and 3.2.2.2 are performed. An intensification factor K 
shall be defined as the inverse of the lowest retained 
proportion. The applicable structural integrity tests, 
i.e., paras. 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, and 3.8, will be 
conducted on the complete (as sold) non-UV-exposed 
samples at loadings equal to the base values multiplied 
by the intensification factor, K. For example, if 80% of 
the tensile strength is retained in para. 3.2.2.1, and 
85% of the Izod unit energy is retained, then K = 70.80 
= 1.25. This will ensure that adequate strength remains 
after service aging. 

NOTE: In the following paragraphs, the factor K is 
derived from para. 3.2.1.1 (Test Method 1) or para. 
3.2.2.3 (Test Method 2). 

3.3 Vertical Load and Deformation Test 

Six fittings intended for installation in the floor or wall shall 
be tested. 

A point load machine readable to, at a minimum, 5 Ibf 
(22 N) increments and that is equipped with a 2 in. (51 mm) 
minimum diameter steel tup with a 2 in. ±Vi in. (51 mm 
±13 mm) radius nose and a tup speed of 0.20 in./min to 
0.25 in./min (5.1 mm/min to 8A mm/min) shall be used. 

3.3.1 Test Method. Using the tup and a 2 in. (51 mm) 
diameter "Skin Pad" on the face of the tup, and tup speed 
described in para. 3.3, the six fittings shall be mounted in 
a horizontal plane and tested. The "Skin Pad" is a % in. 
(6.35 mm) thick Buna-N rubber pad of Shore A durometer 
60 ±5 hardness. The tup and pad shall be centered 

(a) on the fitting face 

(b) at two points midway between the center and 
edge 

(c) at two points between stiffeners, if any 

(d) at two points furthest from any support post. 



A load is applied at each of the above locations until 
300 Ibf ±10 Ibf (1 334 N ±44 N) is reached. 

3.3.2 Performance Requirement. Suction fittings shall 
not permanently deform, crack, or lose any material 
from the fitting, exclusive of plating or finish. 

3.4 Horizontal Load and Deformation Test 

Fittings to be tested shall be the six as previously tested in 
para. 3.3. This test is identical to the Vertical Test except 
that the load is 150-lbf ±5 Ibf (667 N ±22 N). This applies 
only to fittings intended for and marked "Wall Only" or "Wall 
or Floor." 

3.5 Point Load to Excess Test 

Fittings to be tested shall be the six as previously tested in 
paras. 3.3 and 3.4, loaded in the same manner. 

3.5.1 Test Method. The test equipment to be used shall 
be the same and positioned as described in para. 3.3, 
with "Skin Pad." The units shall be subjected to additional 
loading, with a load speed of 0.20 in./min to 0.25 in./ 
min (5.1 mm/min to 6.4 mm/min), until the tup protrudes 
through the cover/ grate or until a value of 600 Ibf x K 
±10 Ibf (2 669 NxK ±44 N) is reached. 

3.5.2 Performance Requirement. Suction fittings shall not 
sustain loss of any material from the fitting, exclusive of 
plating or finish upon protrusion, or when a value of 600 
Ibf* K ±10 Ibf (2 669 N * K ±44 N) is reached. Permanent 
deformation shall not be considered a failure. 

3.6 Shear Load Test 

Six fittings shall be tested. They shall be those from the 
Ultraviolet Light Exposure Test (para. 3.2). This test shall be 
applied to all fittings that protrude Y 2 in. (13 mm) or more 
from the mounting plane. 

3.6.1 Test Method. The fitting shall be tested by the 
application of a 150 Ibf x ±5 Ibf (667 NxK±22 N) test 
load applied 30° from the mounting plane by a loading 
face 2 in. 2 (645 mm 2 ) covered with a 2 in. x 2 in. (51 mm 
x 51 mm) "Skin Pad" on its face. The six fittings shall be 
tested using the point load machine described in para. 
3.3. Three fittings shall be tested with fasteners directly in 
line with the load to test the fastener's strength, and three 
shall be tested with the load midway between fasteners for 
general strength. 

3.6.2 Performance Requirement. The cover/grate shall 
remain in place. The fitting shall not permanently deform, 
crack, or lose any material exclusive of plating and finish. 

3.7 Pressure Differential and Point Impact Test. 

The same six fittings used in the Shear Load Test (para. 3.6) 
shall be tested. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



3.7.1 Test Method 

(a) The fitting to be tested shall be mounted on a 
horizontal surface and covered with a 20 mil (0,5 mm) 
plastic material or other suitable material. The fitting outlet 
shall be connected to a vacuum or pressure (pressure will 
be required for K factors greater than 1.0 ) system and it 
shall be subjected to a 28.5 in. (724 mm) Hg x K vacuum 
within 60 sec ±5 sec. The vacuum shall be sustained for 

5 min ±10 sec. 

(b) The vacuum or pressure shall be removed from the 
system, and the fitting shall be impacted at 15 ft/lbf x K 
(20.3 J x K) using the test method in ASTM D 2444, with 
a 5 lb (2.3 kg) steel tup, 2 in. (51 mm) minimum diameter 
with a 2 in. ± 1 / 2 in. (51 mm ±13 mm) radius nose. The tup 
shall be dropped from a distance of 3 ft x K (914 mm x K) 
aligned with the center of the fitting. 

(c) The fitting shall be again connected to the vacuum 
or pressure system and again it shall be subjected to 
the 28.5 in. (724 mm) Hg x K differential pressure within 
60 sec ±5 sec. The differential shall be sustained for an 
additional 5 min ±10 sec. 

After removal from the test fixture, water-soluble contrast- 
ing ink shall be applied in accordance with paras. 3.1.6 
and 3.1.6.1 and the fitting shall be inspected for cracks, 
breaks, or fractures in accordance with para. 3.1.6.2. 

3.7.2 Performance Requirement. The cover/grate shall 
remain in place after the test procedures in paras. 3.7.1(a) 
through (d). The fitting shall not permanently deform, 
crack, or lose any material from the fitting exclusive of 
plating and finish. 

3.8 Pull Load Test 

Pull Load Testing shall be required of all fittings with 
openings of 0.375 in. (9.53 mm) or more affording a finger 
grip. The measurements shall be done on the anticlastic 
surface when required for the hair test, para. 4.1.5.7. The 
same six fittings used in the Vacuum and Point Impact Test 
(see para. 3.7) shall be tested. 

3.8.1 Test Method. The cover/grate shall be tested by 
the application of a 150 Ibf x K ±5 Ibf (667 NxK±22 N) 
test load to the underside of the cover/grate assembly 
and perpendicular to the mounting surface that will 
approximate the load bearing points available to a 
bather's three fingers directly adjacent to fasteners, and 
midway between fasteners when the fitting is installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

3.8.2 Performance Requirement The cover/grate 
shall withstand a 150 Ibf x K (667 NxK) pulling force. 
Distortion under load shall not compromise the fastener(s), 
loosen the cover/grate, permanently deform, or crack 

the fitting. 



3.9 Mold Stress Relief Distortion 

3.9.1 Test Method. One sample of the complete (as 
sold) non-UV-exposed fitting is to be placed in a full draft 
circulating air oven maintained at a uniform temperature of 
140 °F (60 °C). The sample is to remain in the oven for 

7 hr. The sample is then to be removed from the oven, and 
be allowed to return to room temperature. 

3.9.2 Performance Requirement. This sample shall be 
used for the Hair and Body Entrapment Tests to ensure 
compliance therewith. 

4 Hair Entrapment 

4.1 General 

4.1.1 Impedance. Hair drawn into or on suction fittings 
shall not impede the escape of a bather. 

4.1.2 Sample Types. Two types of hair shall be used in this 
test and separate tests shall be run with each type. 

4.1.2.1 Type 1. A full head of natural, fine, straight, 
blond European, human hair with cuticle on hair stems, 
16 in. (406 mm) in length, 5.5 oz ±0.5 oz (155 g ±15 g), 
shall be firmly affixed in a manner approximating the 
normal distribution of hair with "hook and loop" to a 
Professional Wig Display Mannequin, Model No. FMH 
#1SC, or equivalent, properly weighted to achieve 
neutral buoyancy under the water. A scale anchoring 
point shall be provided near the "neck" of the "skull." 

A fresh sample of hair shall be used for each fitting 
tested or when tangles in the hair cannot be removed. 
Hair shall be trimmed evenly. 

4.1.2.2 Type 2. Natural, medium to fine, straight, light- 
brown colored human hair weighing 2 oz±0.11 oz 
(57g±3g) and having a length of 16 in. (406 mm) shall 
be affixed to a 1 in. (25 mm) diameter by 12 in. 

(305 mm) wooden dowel as may be required to properly 
place the hair sample for testing. 

Consideration shall be given to the buoyancy of the 
portion of the wooden dowel in excess of 12 in (305 
mm) in determining the removal force. A method for 
attaching a scale shall be provided on the opposite end 
of the dowel. A fresh sample of hair shall be used for 
each fitting tested or when tangles in the hair cannot be 
removed. Hair shall be trimmed evenly. 

4.1.3 Suction Fitting. Only one new suction fitting shall be 
required to be tested. 

4.1.4 Field Fabricated Outlets. For field fabricated outlets, 
hair entrapment tests are not required, but velocity through 
cover/grate openings shall not exceed 1.5 ft/sec (4.675 
gpm/in. 2 ) [457 mm/sec (2.73 Lpm/cm 2 )] of open area. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



8 



Figure 3: Test Tank Pull Mechanism 

Pull mechanism- 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Scale - 
Eye- 






Test tank 



Figure 4: Test Tank Side View 



3 ft. (914 mm) to return line 



Water surface 

L 




4.5 ft. 

(1372 mm) 



H~ 1.5 ft. ~H 

(457 mm) 

«— 175ft, —> 
(533 mm) 



Figure 5: Test Tank Top View 



3 ft, (914 mm) 



3ft 

(914 mm) 

return line 



1 ft. 1 ft. 1 ft. 

(305 mm) (305 mm} (305 mm) 
L ^L ^.L >i 



-3 ft. (914 mm) - 



175 ft. _, 
(533 mm) H 




Side opening 
18 in x 18 in. 

(457 mm * 457 mm) 



Bottom opening 
18 in * 18 in, 

(457 mm x 457 mm) 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSi/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 6: Test Tank Mounting Plate 



175 ft. (533 mm)- 



175 ft. 

(533 mm) 



a y;;© 



1. 5 ft (45? mm)~ 




Test plate 
Vz in. (13 mm) 
clear acrylic 



Typical suction outlet 



po=«=^j 



To pump inlet 



Typical Mounting of Suction Outlet on 

Removable 21 in. * 21 in. (533 mm x 533 mm) 

Test Plate 



Figure 7: Test Tank Baffles 




-3 ft (914 mm)- 



-o DP 

ODD 

a do 
p a o 

!:0 Q D 
DD D 
POO 

odd 

p a a 

n ;a;o: 

D D D 

:DQD; 

a p;o 

id Q;P; 

odd:: 



a a a a a 
p a a a d 
a da a a 
d a a a a 
a'p-a D D 
a pod n 
dp odd 
a a a a a 
■no a a a 
a a on: a 
op oao 
p an da ; 
a a a a p 
pdb a a 
q a DP D 



a do 

pop; 

a a a 

DO P 

dp a 

ODD: 

a;p:q- 
a d u 

PDD 

a pa 
o a d 

odd 

:a : tm:- 
con 



Baffle A 

NOTES: 

Baffles made of V% in. (13 mm) clear acrylic. 

(1)4 = 3 in. (76 mm) 

(2) B = 6 in. (f 52 mm; 



165 1 in, (25 mm)- 
diam. holes 

Baffle B 
(Note 1) 



B 

4 ft. 
(1219 mm) 



4 ft. 

(f 2?9 mm,) 



-3 ft (914 mm)- 



B 



o o 

o o 

o o 

o o 

o o 

o o 



B 



o o o 

o o o 

o o o 

o o o 

o o o 
coo 

a o 



35 2 in. (51 mm) 
diam, holes 

Baffle C 
(Note 2) 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



10 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



4.1.5 Test Equipment 

4.1.5.1 Test Tank. The test tank for evaluation of 
suction fittings for the hair entrapment test shall be in 
accordance with Figures 4, 5, and 6. The baffle plates 
shall be constructed as shown in Figure 7 and be 
positioned as shown in Figures 4 and 5. 

4.1.5.2 Pump. A properly grounded pump capable of 
producing a flow rate of at least 25% greater than the 
fitting manufacturer is recommended rating of the fitting 
shall be used. A rate of flow meter with an accuracy of 
±3% at the anticipated cover rating shall be installed in 
the piping system. 

4.1.5.3 Pump Inlet. The pump inlet shall be connected 
to the 16 in. (406 mm) length of Schedule 40 plastic 
pipe using pipe lengths and adapters as necessary. 

4.1.5.4 Scale. A scale accurate within 0.1 Ibf (0A5 N) 
at a tension of 5 Ibf (22 N) shall be used to determine 
pounds of pull against the entrapment. 

4.1.5.5 Test Fixture. The hair entrapment test fixture 
shall be comprised of the test tank (Figures 4 through 
7), the mechanical appurtenances, and the pull 
mechanism (Figure 3). 

4.1.5.6 Mounting Surface. For assemblies where 
all flow passages are provided by the manufactured 
components, the mounting surface of Figure 6 shall be 
planar. 

4.1.5.7 Test Procedure. For assemblies where a 
portion of the flow passage is the pool surface and is 
not controlled by the suction outlet manufacturer, the 
test-mounting surface shall represent field imperfections 
that may produce a hair entrapment hazard. 



Figure 8: Anticlastic Mounting Surface (Typical) 



The nominally square planar mounting surface shall be 
distorted to an anticlastic (warped or saddle-shaped) 
surface such that one corner is 2 in. (51 mm) away from 
a plane defined by the other three corners of a 48 in. x 
48 in. (122 mm x 122 mm) square as shown in Figure 8. 
A convenient means shall support three of the corners 
in a plane with 1 in. (25 mm) clearance from the nearby 
surface of the frame. Then force the fourth corner 2 in. 
(51 mm) from the plane of the first three. Supports shall 
be localized, and 1.5 in. (38 mm) from the edges of the 
mounting surface. The test specimen shall be firmly 
attached to the anticlastic surface in a field installation 
manner as specified by the manufacturer. 

4.1.6 Alternate Test Tank 

4.1.6.1 Depth of Tank. The same tank as described in 
para. 4.1.5.1, with baffles, bottom, sides, and only the 
one end where the fittings are tested may be used by 
the insertion of the tank into a larger body of water, so 
that the submerged depth of the tank is the same as in 
para. 4.2.3. 

4.1.6.2 Water Volume. The volume of the water in this 
larger body of water shall substitute for the return line 
piping depicted in Figures 4 and 5. 

4.1.6.3 Alternate Test Pool. Any other body of water 
may be used, provided the body of water gives 
equivalent test results as intended by this Standard. 

4.1.6.4 Water Currents. Influences of water currents 
shall be virtually absent in the test pool as evidenced 
by the suspension of the hair sample in the tank for 
30 sec and noting its deviation from a vertical plumb 
line hung at a distance from the nonflowing test 
specimen of four times the least dimension of the test 
cover/grate. The deviation shall not exceed 1 in. 

(25 mm) during this time. 




48 in. 

(1219 mm) 



Top View 
Anticlastic Surface 



|-*-2 in. 

(51 mm) 



Side View 



45 in, 
-(1143 mm) 



A 




45 in. 

(1143 mm) 



Bottom View with 
Mounting Points 



warped 
mounting surface 



i 



2 in. 

(51 mm) 



rigid frame 



11 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 9: Hair Test Configuration for Self-Contained Spa Fittings 

suction #1 



suction #2 




flexible PVC hose 



14 ft. ±1 ft. (4267 mm ±305 mm) - 




to pump 



NOTE: This represents a worst-case hydrauiically unbalanced 
plumbing configuration. 



4.2 Test Method 

4.2.1 Testing requirements shall be in accordance with 
paras. 4.1.3 and 4.1.4. 

4.2.2 The suction fitting including the sump to be tested 
(see Figure 6) shall be installed in accordance with 
manufacturer's installation instructions on the test drain- 
mounting surface. For suction fittings intended for wail 
installation, the test-mounting surface shall be placed in 
the vertical position, and for suction fittings intended to 
be installed only in the floor installation, the test-mounting 
surface shall be placed in the horizontal position. Suction 
fittings intended for installation in either the wall or floor 
position shall be tested in both positions. For fittings 
tested in the vertical position, if the pattern of the cover/ 
grate is not uniform, it shall be tested in two positions, 
representing the essential geometric differences. The fitting 
shall be connected to a 90° elbow the same size of the 
fitting outlet, and as close to the suction fitting as possible, 
with a minimum of 16 in. (406 mm) of straight Schedule 40 
plastic pipe the same size as the fitting socket connected 
tothe90°elbow. 

4.2.2.1 Self-Contained Spa Fittings shall be installed in 
pairs on the test suction outlet mounting surface using 
14 ft ±1 ft (4267 mm ±305 mm) of flexible PVC hose 
in accordance with Figure 9. The size(s) of the flexible 
PVC tubing shall be specified by the self-contained spa 
fitting manufacturer. When more than one size of hose 
is specified, each size shall be tested. Suction #1, 
shown if Figure 9, shall be tested for hair entrapment in 
accordance with paras. 4.2.3 through 4,3. 

4.2.3 The tank shall be filled with water at a temperature 
at 90 °F ±10 °F (32 °C ±6 °C) to a depth of 12 in. ± 1 / 2 
in. (305 mm ±13 mm) above the top edge of the cover/ 
grate, or to a depth in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions for swim jet combination fittings. 



4.2.4 Prior to energizing the test pump, the pull mecha- 
nism shall be verified to ensure a consistent speed when 
pulling weights from 2 Ibf to 10 Ibf (8.9 N to 44 N). Within 
that range of test weights, the speed of the pull shall be 
5 in./sec ±0.25 in./sec (127 mm/sec ±6 mm/sec), 

4.2.5 The test pump shall be activated and the flow 
shall be regulated to 10 gpm (38 L/min) less than the 
fitting manufacturer's recommended gpm flow rate. If the 
fitting rating is not known, this test shall be started at 25 
gpm (95 L/min). The fitting manufacturer may specify the 
starting test flow rate for each fitting to be tested. 

4.2.6 Prior to use, the hair shall be cleaned in a 10% 
volume of Sodium Alpha Olefin Sulfonate (AOS) and water. 
After cleaning thoroughly, rinse in potable water. Hair 
samples shall be cleaned after every ten pulls. Dry hair 
shall be saturated for a minimum of 2 min in the test tank. 
When saturated, the hair shall be placed on the dowel/ 
human skull and attached to the piston. When testing on 

a vertical fitting, the free end of the hair shall be placed 
approximately 12 in. (305 mm) in front of the suction 
fitting, 2 in. (51 mm) above the face of the fitting, as 
illustrated in Figure 10. 

4.2.7 In both tests the hair shall be slowly moved closer to 
the suction portions of the fitting, and the ends of the hair 
shall be fed into the fitting in the direction of the intake 
flow as illustrated in Figure 10. The hair shall be continually 
fed into the fitting while moving the skull or dowel from 
side-to-side in a sweeping motion. 

The magnitude of the sweeping motion shall be reduced 
with each pass of the skull or dowel. The hair shall be fed 
into the fitting over a period of 60 sec ±5 sec. Then the 
skull or dowel end shall be held against the fitting for 30 
sec ±5 sec. The skull or dowel shall then be released and 
allowed to float or remain free for 30 sec ±5 sec. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



12 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 10: Hair Test Diagrams 




Full head of 
human hair 



- 2 oz. of human hair 



/ 



/ 



1 in. 

(25 mm) 



$f 1in. 

JJ/ (25 mm) 
8 



/ 







Water surface 



1 in. (25 mm} 




Horizontally Mounted Suction Outlet 



Vertically Mounted Suction Outlet 
NOTE: Showing 2 oz. hair test. Same to be performed with full head of hair. 



4.2.7.1 If testing a horizontal fitting, testing shall start 
with the end of the hair 2 in. (51 mm) above the fitting 
in a similar sweeping motion. 

4.2.7.2 In testing any fitting which is not entirely 
symmetric, or those mounted on an anticlastic surface, 
testing shall start with the end of the hair 2 in. (51 mm) 
from all representative locations around the fitting. 

4.2.8 The flow rate shall be increased in 5 gpm (19 L/min) 
increments ±3% and ten tests shall be performed at each 
flow rate. Brush hair prior to each test to keep tangle-free. 

4.2.8.1 With the test pump still operating, the amount 
of force necessary to free the hair from the fitting shall 
be measured. The skull or dowel shall be attached 

to the scale and the scale shall be zeroed and then 
pulled in a vertical orientation away from the fitting by 
activating the hair removal mechanism. The force of the 
entrapment shall be measured and recorded. A sample 
reporting form for recording the data is provided in non- 
mandatory Appendix A. 

4.2.8.2 Where a failure is determined with a specific 
5 gpm (19 L/min) increase, the unit shall be permitted 
to be retested in 1 gpm (3.8 L/min) increments up to the 
point of the previous failure in order to determine the 
rating under this section. 

4.3 Performance Requirement 

A pull of 5 Ibf (22 N) or greater on any one of the ten 
tests, including the equalized weight of the saturated 
test apparatus, shall be deemed a failure, and the flow 
rate in gpm at failure shall be recorded. If one failure in 
ten pulls occurs, repeat the test ten more times. 



All additional tests shall pass before moving to the next 
value. The highest passing flow rate shall be divided by 
1.25 to determine the maximum allowable rating of the 
suction fitting unless the manufacturer has set a lower 
flow rate, which then shall be the rating of this fitting. 

5 Body Entrapment 

5.1 General 

5.1.1 Design and Installation. Suction fittings shall 
be designed and installed to reduce the potential for 
body entrapment. The potential for body entrapment is 
addressed by the proper selection of the size of outlet 
cover/grate or the proper installation of more than one 
suction outlet. 

5.1.2 Fittings 

5.1.2.1 Body Entrapment Test shall apply to all fittings 
and suction outlets covered under this Standard. For 
manufactured fittings only one new fitting shall be 
required to be tested. 

5.1.2.1.1 Self-Contained Spa Fittings shall be tested 
for conformance with Section 5 Body Entrapment 
using a single-outlet configuration. The Body 
Entrapment Test shall not be performed using the 
configuration of para. 4.2.2.1. 

5.1.2.2 Suction outlet cover/ grates that cannot be 
completely covered by the 18 in. x 23 in. (457 mm x 
584 mm) body blocking element may be rated by either 
the test procedures called for in this section or by 
calculation in accordance with para. 2.3.1. 



13 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 11: Body Block Element 







^■i 



Figure 12: Body Block Element Dimensions 




waterproofed 
plywood 



foam 

HL— 0.75 in. 
I (19 mm} 




-2 in. 

(51 mm} 



5.1.3 Test Equipment. A torso specimen is defined as 
a rectangular form representing the flat portion of the 
99th percentile adult male body (Mandatory Appendix I). 
Representing this form for test purposes is the body block 
element that is an 18 in. x 23 in. x 2 in. (457 mm x 584 
mm x 51 mm) section of foam identified as "Closed Cell 
NBR/PVC Foam with a compression deflection value of 
1.5 psi to 3.0 psi (10 kPa to 21 kPa) at 25% deflection as 
measured in accordance with ASTM D 1056-00." It shall be 
mounted against an 18 in. x 23 in. x % in. (457 mm x 584 
mm x 19 mm) waterproofed plywood backing, with the skin 
side away from the plywood, with an eyebolt, hitching ring, 
or equivalent at the centroid as shown in Figures 11 and 
12. The specimen shall be ballasted to neutral buoyancy, 
within 0.7 Ibf (3 J N), at the test depth. 

Corners of the applicable body-blocking element as well as 
the body-blocking element shall be radiused with a radii of 
22% of the width dimension. 

5.2 Test Method 

5.2.1 With the outlet flowing at the smaller of the 
maximum flow specified by the manufacturer or designer 
or as determined in para. 4.3, the 18 in. x 23 in. (457 
mm x 584 mm) body block element, concentrically loaded, 
shall be placed on the cover/grate with an applied force of 
120 Ibf (534 N) and in such a position as to be centered or 
cover the largest area of the 
cover/grate. 



5.2.1.1 For purposes of calculating the maximum 
allowable release force, the smallest blocking element 
that will completely shadow the suction outlet cover/ 
grate being tested shall be referred to as the applicable 
body-blocking element. 

5.2.1.2 Applicable body blocking elements may range 
in size from the 18 in. x 23 in. (457mm x 584 mm) size 
down to a minimum dimension of 9 in. x 11.5 in. 
(229 mm x 292 mm) as given in Table 1. Corners 

shall be rounded with a radius of 22% of the width 
dimension. 

5.2.2 Swim jet combination fittings shall be tested by 
placing the body-blocking element fully against and 
centered on the fixture faceplate with a force of 120 Ibf 

(534 N). 

5.3 Performance Requirement 

5.3.1 Under these test conditions, to pass the Body 
Entrapment Test, the maximum allowable removal force 
(in pounds), immediately after the 120 Ibf (534 N) 
applied force is released, shall be based on the following 
calculation using the width of the smallest applicable body 
blocking element. This maximum shall not be exceeded in 
three consecutive tests. 

NOTE: See Table 1 for computation of the maximum 
removal force. 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



14 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 





Table 1: Applicable Body Block Element - 


•Calculation of Removal Force 








Min. Width 






Ratio of 












Blocking Element 


Blocking Element 




Element 




Times Child 




Maximum 




to Shadow 


Length = 


Basis is 


Width to 


Ratio 


Weight = 


One-Half 


Removal 


Bather 


Tested Cover 


1,2777 x Width 


Child Width 


Child Width 


Cubed 


30 lb 


Weight 


Effort No. 


99th percentile male 


51 


23.0 


9 


2.00 


8.00 


240 


120 


120 




17.5 


22.4 


9 


1.94 


7.35 


221 


110 


110 




17 


21.7 


9 


1.89 


6.74 


202 


101 


101 




16.5 


21.1 


9 


1.83 


6.16 


185 


92 


92 




16 


20.4 


9 


1.78 


5.62 


169 


84 


84 




15.5 


19.8 


9 


1.72 


5.11 


153 


77 


77 




15 


19.2 


9 


1.67 


4.63 


139 


69 


69 




14.5 


18.5 


9 


1.61 


4.18 


125 


63 


63 




14 


17.9 


9 


1.56 


3.76 


113 


56 


56 




56 


17.2 


9 


1.50 


3.38 


101 


51 


51 




13 


16.6 


9 


1.44 


3.01 


90 


45 


45 




12.5 


16.0 


9 


1.39 


2.68 


80 


40 


40 




12 


15.3 


9 


1.33 


2.37 


71 


36 


36 




11.5 


14.7 


9 


1.28 


2.09 


63 


31 


31 




11 


14.1 


9 


1.22 


1.83 


55 


27 


27 




10.5 


13.4 


9 


1.17 


1.59 


48 


24 


24 




10 


12.8 


9 


1.11 


1.37 


41 


21 


21 




9.5 


12.1 


9 


1.06 


1.19 


35 


18 


18 


3 year old child 


9 


11.5 


9 


1.00 


1.00 


30 


15 


15 



NOTES: 

(a) All dimensions in inches (1 in. = 25.4 mm) 

(b) This Table calculates the maximum removal effort that shall be required to remove the body blocking element from the cover/grate being tested as 
based on the width of the applicable body blocking element. Intermediate values may be calculated using the formula (width/9) 3 x 15 
Example: 10.7/9 = 1.188; 1.188 3 = 1.68; 168 multiplied by 15 = 25.2 Ibf 



5.3.2 Where a failure is determined at the tested flow rate 
as specified in para. 5.2.1, the unit shall be allowed to be 
tested in 5 gpm (19 L/min) decreases until the unit passes. 
The unit shall then be permitted to be retested in 1 gpm 
(3.8 L/min) increments up to the point of the previous 
failure in order to determine its rating under this section. 

6 Finger and Limb Entrapment 

6.1 General 

6.1.1 Design and Installation. Suction fittings shall be 
designed and installed to reduce the potential for digit or 
limb entrapment. 

6.1.1.1 When fully assembled, suction fittings shall not 
have any accessible opening that allows the passage 
of the 1 in. (25 mm) cylindrical end of the UL Articulate 
Probe. 

6.1.2 Small Aperture. A small aperture is an opening 
with two or more dimensions smaller than 1 in. (25 mm) 
(see Figure 13, p. 16). 

6.1.3 Large Aperture. A large aperture is an opening 
with only one dimension smaller than 1 in. (25 mm) 
(see Figure 13). 



6.1.4 Suction Outlet Testing 

6.1.4.1 All suction outlets covered under this Standard 
shall be subjected to the following test. 

6.1.4.2 Finger Entrapment Tests shall be conducted on 
one new suction fitting from each mold cavity. 

6.1.5 Conditions for Tests. Tests shall be conducted at 
room temperature using new dry fittings. 

6.1.6 Conditions Using UL Articulate Probe. Tests shall be 
conducted with the UL Articulate Probe in accordance with 
Figures 1, 13, 14, 15, and 16. 

6.2 Test Method 

Each aperture on the assembled suction fitting shall be 
subjected to the insertion of both ends of an UL Articulate 
Probe. Using 3 Ibf (12 N) ±5%, the Articulate Probe shall 
be urged through all exposed apertures of the assembled 
suction fitting. 

6.3 Performance Requirement 

A small or large aperture is permitted when the 1 in. 
(25 mm) cylindrical end of the UL Articulate Probe cannot 
be made to penetrate through to the inside surface of the 
aperture and as follows: 



15 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 

Figure 13: Finger Probe-Finger and Limb Entrapment Test 

Boundary of aperture 



PASS 
(Notel) 



"Second Articulation Joint" 
v "First Articulation Joint" 




PASS' 
(Note 3) 



Apposing surface 



EXAMPLE: Small apertures; Two or more 
dimensions (D1 and 02} smaller than 1 in. (25 mm) 
USE FIRST ARTICULATION JOINT 



EXAMPLE: Large apertures: Only one 
dimension (D1) smaller than 1 in. {25 mm} 
USE SECOND ARTICULATION JOINT 




D1 



D2 
D3 



NOTES: 

1. "Edges" inside aperture are less than 0.311 in. {7,9 mm} wide and there are no protrusions above the aperture surface. 

2. An "edge" wider than 0.31 1 in. (7.9 mm} but it is outside the aperture. 

3. Transitional radius > 0.79 in (19 mm). 



Figure 14: Finger Probe 





■nw| 

-#-? ; • - 1 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



16 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Figure 15: Finger Probe Dimensions 



R = 0.14 in. (3.5 mm) 
0.002 in, (0.05mm) 



0.002 in. (0.05mm) 

0.63 in, (16.0mm) 
1.00 in. (25.4 mm) 




|— 0.002 in. (0.05 mm) 
-3.07 in. (78.0 mm) 



3.82 in. (97.0 mm) 



1 .97 in. (50,0 mm) 



U 



- 3.07 in. (76.0 mm) 

— R = 0.98 in. (24.9 mm) 



0.20 in (5, 1 mm) 
1.18 in (30.0 mm) 
236 m (59,9 mm) 
3.54 in (89.9 mm) 




" f^, 3.78 in f96.0m/n; 
3.94 in (f 00. f mmj 
5.35 in (f 35. 9 mm; 
6.06 in f f 5a 9 mm) 



9.21 in. (233.9 mm.) 



1.00 in. (25,4 mm) 



Figure 16: Finger Probe Knuckle Dimensions 



fQ 



0.389 in, 

f& 7 mm) ' 

0.528 in. 

(13.4 mm) ' 



t 

1.18 in. (30 mm) 



2.36 in. f60 mm) 




100 in. 

(25.4 mm) ~ 




0.326 in. 
(8.3 mm) 



0.460 in. 
(11.7 mm) 



17 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



(a) Small apertures shall be permitted when the 
centerline of the first articulation joint, located 1.18 in. 
(30 mm) from the point end of the UL Articulate Probe, 
cannot be made to pass beyond an edge or pinch point 
that is located inside the aperture being tested. 

(See Figure 1, p. 2.) 

(b) Large aperture(s) shall be permitted when the 
centerline of the second articulation joint, located 2.36 
in. (59,9 mm) from the point end of the UL Articulate 
Probe, cannot be made to pass beyond an apposed 
edge or pinch point that is located inside the aperture 
being tested. (See Figure 13.) 

(c) Edges and pinch points shall be permitted within the 
aperture and within range of the first articulate joint in 
accordance with Figure 13 if they are less than 0.311 
in. (7.9 mm) wide, measured parallel to the aperture 
opening. 

(d) Edges and pinch points created by molding lines, 
engraved text, and symbols shall be permitted within 
the aperture provided they do not exceed a height of 
0.025 In. (0.64 mmj. 

7 Packaging and Installation Instructions 

7.1 Marking of Suction Fittings 

7.1.1 Fittings that comply with ASME A112.19.8 shall be 
permanently marked as follows in a manner that is visible 
in the installed position and where the text is no smaller 
than 0.08 in. (203 mm) tall: 

(a) The following is an example of a typical marking: 

EXAMPLE: 

For Multiple Drain Use Only 

108 GPM 

Swim Jet Life: 7 Years 

Wall Only 

Quantum 1563-W 

(b) The positioning or arrangement of this marking shall 
be in the following sequence when possible: 

(1) Certification markings as required by responsible 
jurisdictional authority. 

(2) The statement "For Single or Multiple Outlet Use," 
"For Single Outlet Use," or "For Multiple Outlet Use 
Only." Self-contained spa fittings shall be marked with 
"For Use in Self-Contained Factory Manufactured Spas 
Only" and Tor Multiple Outlet Use Only." 

(3) The lesser of the maximum flow rate in gpm as 
determined in accordance with para. 2.3.1.4, 4.3, 
or 5.3.2. A fitting shall be permitted to be marked 



with multiple flow rates (i.e., a flow rating for "Floor" 
installations and another for "Wall" installations). 

(4) The "Type" of the fitting in accordance with 
para. 1.1.6. 

(5) Fitting components shall be marked "Life: X Years" 
where the manufacturer indicates the appropriate 
installed life in years. Individual components may be 
marked with unique life spans. 

(6) Installation position- "Wall Only," or "Floor Only," or 
"Wall or Floor" if allowed in both positions. 

(7) Manufacturer's name or registered trademark. 

(8) Model designation. 

7.1.2 As an alternate to marking field fabricated outlets, 
the owner of the facility where these fittings will be 
installed shall be advised in writing by the Registered 
Design Professional the information called for in paras. 
7.1.1(b)(1) through (8). 

7.2 Packaging of Suction Ratings 

7.2.1 The packaging and installation instructions for 
manufactured fittings shall contain 

(a) information on installation and service, including: 

(1) type designation in accordance with para. 1.1.6, 
including any requirement for multiple outlets required 
per pump 

(2) instructions not to locate suction outlets on 
seating areas or on the backrests for such seating 
areas 

(3) instructions stating that when two or more suction 
fittings are used on a common suction line, they shall 
be separated by a minimum of 3 ft 

(914 mm), or if any are located closer, they shall be 
located on two different planes (i.e., one on the bottom 
and one on the vertical wall, or one each on two 
separate vertical walls), such that it is unlikely both 
could be simultaneously blocked 

(4) instructions stating that in the event of one suction 
outlet being completely blocked, the remaining suction 
outlets serving that system shall have a flow rating 
capable of the full flow of the pump(s) for the specific 
suction system 

(5) maximum flow rating with head loss curve 

(6) acceptable connecting pipe size(s) 

(7) mounting position(s) 

(8) suction outlet part number(s), and/or model 
number(s), and detailed field build sump design 
specifications, when applicable 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



18 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



(9) part number/description list, and "Replace within 
7Y' installed years" for all parts 

(10) tools required 

(11) service and winterizing instructions 

(b) a cautionary note not to exceed the maximum 
allowable flow rate stated on the suction fitting 

(c) a note that the suction fitting including fasteners 
should be observed for damage or tampering before 
each use of this facility 



(d) a statement that missing, broken, or cracked 
suction fittings shall be replaced before using this 
facility 

(e) a statement that loose suction fittings shall be 
reattached or replaced before using this facility 

(f) a statement "Read, then keep these instructions 
for future reference" 

(g) a cautionary note about increasing flow by 
increasing pump size. 



19 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSi/APSP-16 2011 

Mandatory Appendix I 

Torso Specimen with Rectangle Superimposed 



99th Percentile Man 



15 in. 

(381 mm) 



20,5 in. 

(521 mm) 



184 in. 

(467 mm) 



18 in. 

(457 mm) 



■ 20.6 in. (523 mm) • 
-18 in. (457 mm) ~ 



3.4 in. (86 mm) 




23 in. 

(584 mm) 



©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



A-l 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



Mandatory Appendix II 
Fitting Type Requirements 



Table II Fitting Type Requirements 


Type 


Field Fabricated 
Outlets 


Venturi 
Outlets 


Swim Jet 
Combination Outlets 


Submerged 
Suction Outlets 


Self-Contained 
Spa Fittings 


Certification 


Registered Design 
Professional 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Independent 
Laboratory (1) 


Single or multiple 


Yes 


Per manufacturer 


Per manufacturer 


Per manufacturer 


Multiple only 


Require tools to open 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


UVtest and usable lifetime 
labeling 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Sump/fitting specification 
required 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Body entrapment test 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Vertical load 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Horizontal load 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Excess load 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Shear test 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Vacuum test 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Pull test 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Hair test 


No 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Finger test 


Note 2 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 



NOTES: 

(1) All testing and any certification of this fitting shall be in accordance with ISO/IEC 17025. 

(2) Design shall be per Registered Design Professional. 



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©2011 The Association of Pool & Spa Professionals 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 



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^ericanf 



American National Standard for 

Suction Fittings for Use in 

Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and Hot Tubs 




Familiarity with the ANSI/APSP standards is essential for anyone who builds, 
manufactures, sells, or services pools, spas or hot tubs. 




The Association of 
Pool & Spa Professionals" 



2111 Eisenhower Avenue 
Alexandria VA 22314-4695 

703.838.0083 

memberservrces@APSP.org 

APSP.org 



ANSI/APSP-16 2011 

Non-mandatory Appendix A 

Suction Fitting Test Form-Hair Entrapment 



Suction Fitting Test Form-Hair Entrapment 


Date: 


Pump Type: 


Water Temp: 


Operator: 


Hair Type: 


Maximum Flow 
(gpm) ' 


Protocol: 


Fitting Description: 


Maximum Vacuum 
(in Hg) 2 


Fi 3 
(gpm) 


V 
(in Hg) 




123456789 10 


Comments 7 






Ff 5 (gpm) 
Vf 6 (in Hg) 
Pull (Ibf) 










Ff 
Vf 
Pull 










Ff 
Vf 
Pull 










Ff 
Vf 
Pull 










Ff 
Vf 
Pull 










Ff 
Vf 
Pull 







NOTES: 

(1) Maximum Flow (gpm) shall be the flow rate measurement in gallons per minute with the fitting in place with all valves fully open. 

(2) Maximum Vacuum (in Hg) shall be the vacuum recorded in inches of mercury as measured at maximum flow. 

(3) Fj shall mean the initial flow rate in gallons per minute, which is measured before the entanglement effort is started. 

(4) Vj shall mean the initial vacuum as measured in inches of mercury before the entanglement effort is started. 

(5) Ff shall mean the final flow rate as measured prior to removal of the hair. 

(6) Vf shall mean the final vacuum as measured prior to removal of the hair. 

(7) Report any significant changes here. 



(Approved by the American National Standards Institute February 17, 2011) 



©2011 The Association of Poo! & Spa Professionals 



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